Welcome to the GAA
A resource for tree care professionals and the public to protect and care for Georgia's trees.
Soil and Roots
Article: Soil Compaction Stress & Trees: Symptoms, Measures, Treatments by Dr. Kim Coder, University of Georgia Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources [December 2007]
Article: "Diagnosing Soil Compaction Using a Penetrometer (soil compaction tester)" by Sjoerd W. Duiker, Pennsylvania State University College of Agricultural Sciences [added July 14, 2014]